Common Terms for Networking:


In Networking, to process any data, a set of rules which is called protocol defines how two nodes in a network communicate. Protocol works like a universal language for computers in a network. This enables communication between computer ignoring their differences in software and hardware. Some protocols which you may have heard of are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

Open and Closed System:

The system that is connect on the network and is ready to communicate with other entities is Open System and the system that is not connected to the network and cannot communicate with other systems is Closed System.

OSI Model:

In Networking, the Open Systems Interconnection is basically a very simple representation of how the Internet really works. It has 7 layers like:

7. Application Layer:
In this layer, the interaction between the user and the server occurs. (HTTP and FTP) {Implemented in Software}

6. Presentation Layer:
This layer will make sure the data is in the correct or usable format and will ensure data encryption.(ASCII, UTF, SSL, TLS) {Implemented in Software}

5. Session Layer:
Maintenance of connection and control of different sessions as well as ports is done on this layer.(NetBIOS, SIP) {Implemented in Software}

4. Transport Layer:
It will ensure transmission of data using Transmission Control Protocol and User Diagram Protocol (TCP and UDP). {Implemented in Software}

3. Network Layer:
This layer will decide which physical path the packets will travel.(IP, ICMP, IPSec) {Implemented in Hardware}

2. Datalink Layer:
It defines the format of data on the network.(LAN, Wi-Fi) {Implemented in Hardware}

1. Physical Layer:
It is the physical infrastructure to transport data.(CAN, Bluetooth Physical Layer) {Implemented in Hardware}





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